Professional, peer-reviewed papers explaining and defending young-earth creationism biblically and scientifically
Based on several findings, no reason remains for Archaeopteryx to be classified as anything other than a bird.
Facts Cannot Be Ignored When Considering the Origin of Life #1: The Necessity of Bio-monomers Not to Self-Link for the Existence of Living Organisms
The required automatic self-linking of monomers for abiogenesis is incompatible with the genetic information coding and decoding system that is necessary for life.
The evidence is overwhelming and widely recognized by evolutionists that evolution by small steps cannot bridge the transition from asexual to sexual reproduction.
Creationist disagreement over the status of hominin fossils is unlikely to be resolved here, but Reeves’s recommendations bring alternative tools to baraminology that have not been applied.
Many creationists are actively engaged in finding the Flood/post-Flood boundary, but most creationists consider the Precambrian-Cambrian contact more attractive.
Grudem is making the same biblical and theological errors that theistic evolutionists make. To be biblically consistent, he must abandon his old-earth position.
The Grand Canyon, Monument to Ancient Earth? rejects the truth of Genesis regarding the Flood and the age of the earth.
Louis Agassiz and Alexander Winchell: Two Case Histories of Creationists Who Illustrate That Rejecting Genesis Influences the Acceptance of Racism
Theories that attempted to harmonize evolution and the Scriptures gave birth to, and perpetuated, a form of scientific racism based on Darwinism.
Inerrancy and Biblical Authority: How and Why Old-Earth Inerrantists Are Unintentionally Undermining Inerrancy
The old-earth signers of the CSBInerrancy unintentionally violated their own principles of interpretation and unintentionally undermined the inerrancy and the authority of Scripture.
To interpret the natural world through the lens of Scripture, one must have a correct understanding of the Fall and its effects on the physical creation.
The biblical and scientific arguments for a pre-Flood vapour canopy do not support the theory.
Young-Earth Y Chromosome Clocks Confirm Known Post-Columbian Amerindian Population History and Suggest Pre-Columbian Population Replacement in the Americas
Recent human history represents a novel arena in which to comparatively test evolution and young-earth creation (YEC) against each other.
Testing the Predictions of the Young-Earth Y Chromosome Molecular Clock: Population Growth Curves Confirm the Recent Origin of Human Y Chromosome Differences
The timescale for the human Y chromosome family tree has been a source of sharp disagreement within the creation/evolution debate.
Evidence for a Human Y Chromosome Molecular Clock: Pedigree-Based Mutation Rates Suggest a 4,500-Year History for Human Paternal Inheritance
Pedigree-based mutation rates act as an independent test of the young-earth creation and evolutionary timescales.
The evidence for grossly accelerated radioisotope decay during a past cataclysmic event such as the Genesis Flood has been well established.
An Evaluation of Astronomical Young-Age Determination Methods 2: Solar, Stellar, Galactic, and Extragalactic
Dr. Danny Faulkner evaluates 23 arguments for recent origin for the sun, stars, and galaxies.
Evaluating 25 astronomical arguments for recent origin for the solar system found some to be wanting and others appear to be sound.
How Scholars’ Perceptions of the Semantic Range of יוֹם Have Affected Their Discussions of the Age of the Universe: Part 3
The study looks at delineations and definitions of יוֹם in Scripture, and in lexical and other sources.
How Scholars’ Perceptions of the Semantic Range of יוֹם Have Affected Their Discussions of the Age of the Universe: Part 2
There is a considerable disconnection between lexicography regarding יוֹם and the formation of creation theology.
How Scholars’ Perceptions of the Semantic Range of יוֹם Have Affected Their Discussions of the Age of the Universe: Part 1
There is a considerable disconnection between lexicography regarding יוֹם and the formation of creation theology.
Critical Analysis of Hugh Ross’ Progressive Day-Age Creationism Through the Framework of Young-Earth Creationism
The most important part of the debate between views on creationism is about the presuppositions of each group and their biblical hermeneutics.
Response to “Still No Replacement of Darwin: A Reply to Nathaniel Jeanson’s Response to My Review of Replacing Darwin—The New Origin of Species”
Frello’s recent critique is helpful progress in our discussion, and it argues for the strength of the science in Replacing Darwin.
Still No Replacement of Darwin—A Reply to Nathanial Jeanson’s Response to my Review of Replacing Darwin—The New Origin of Species
I used to think that when creationists talk about creation and evolution as a clash between worldviews, they were wrong. Jeanson has helped me change my mind.
Ironically, Frello has actually done me a great favor; his review ends up bolstering my original claims.
There are old supernova remnants and stage three supernova remnants have been identified. Therefore, this may not be a good argument for recent origin.
I am pleased to see that the young-earth creation (YEC) critic, Stefan Frello, seeks to continue our exchange of ideas.
This is a short reply to Dr. Nathaniel Jeanson’s response to my comment to his work on human mtDNA.
In conjunction with efforts to resolve the light travel time problem, creationists have in recent decades proposed a variety of new cosmological models.
Denis Lamoureux seeks to resolve perceived contradictions between science and Scripture by persuading that Scripture is not inerrant.
Determination of the Decay Constants and Half-Lives of Uranium-238 (238U) and Uranium-235 (235U), and the Implications for U-Pb and Pb-Pb Radioisotope Dating Methodologies
Without accurately known decay half-lives, all radioisotope ages cannot be accurately determined or be considered absolute ages.
The BioLogos Foundation published a popular-level article by old-earth geologists Gregg Davidson and Ken Wolgemuth presenting arguments for an old earth.
The place of the biblical Flood in the geological record remains one of the most hotly debated issues among creationist geologists today.
If we do not understand the dimensions of the war we are engaged in, we are already halfway to theological and historical oblivion.
A Critique of Scientific Explanations of Belief and Unbelief and the Conflict between Evolution and Creationism
The recent claim that “conflicting networks” in the brain that explain belief and unbelief in God cannot be true.
Homo naledi Probably Not Part of the Human Holobaramin Based on Baraminic Re-Analysis Including Postcranial Evidence
With the inclusion of 37 postcranial morphological characters, this work attempts to reassess the baraminic classification of H. naledi.
The lifespans of Old Testament people born after the Flood reveal a numerical pattern known as an exponential decay curve.
Revisiting an Iconic Argument for Milankovitch Climate Forcing: Should the “Pacemaker of the Ice Ages” Paper Be Retracted? Part 3
Despite its popularity, the Milankovitch hypothesis has many problems that are acknowledged even by secular scientists (Cronin 2010, 130–139).
While attempting to elucidate the general chronological profile of the events of the first week, we hope to answer two specific significant questions.
Ussher’s date of creation of October 23, 4004 BC appears to rely upon two questionable assumptions.
This paper argues that the issue with the origin of life and the origin of biodiversity is not an issue of time, though deep time is problematical.
Revisiting an Iconic Argument for Milankovitch Climate Forcing: Should the “Pacemaker of the Ice Ages” Paper Be Retracted? Part 2
Part I of this series presented a number of serious problems with the Pacemaker paper. It is necessary to also understand the Blackman-Tukey (B-T) method.
On the Origin of Human Mitochondrial DNA Differences, New Generation Time Data Both Suggest a Unified Young-Earth Creation Model and Challenge the Evolutionary Out-of-Africa Model
These results underscore the biblical model of human origins and simultaneously undercut the validity of the evolutionary out-of-Africa model.
This study shows that created heterozygosity, together with natural processes that are observable, is sufficient to account for species’ diversity.
We find that small variations in galaxy density as a function of redshift do exist, and are not due to the Malmquist bias.
Dr. Danny Faulkner proposes that Genesis 1:1 is an introductory encapsulation that establishes a foundation for building a biblical model of astronomy.
Revisiting an Iconic Argument for Milankovitch Climate Forcing: Should the “Pacemaker of the Ice Ages” Paper Be Retracted? Part 1
This paper, the first in a series, demonstrates that much of the Hays et al. paper, as originally presented, is invalid.
Numerical Modeling of the Large-Scale Erosion, Sediment Transport, and Deposition Processes of the Genesis Flood
Accounting for thick sediment sequences blanketing the surfaces of the continents is a paramount issue for understanding physical aspects of the Genesis Flood.
Terrestrial vertebrates close to the Flood fountains dissolved then precipitated out to form Precambrian-Cambrian sedimentary phosphate deposits.
Challenging the BioLogos Claim that a Vitellogenin (Egg-Laying) Pseudogene Exists in the Human Genome
Interestingly, BioLogos is probably the only evolutionary group that puts such a high level of focus on this hypothesis as key evidence for evolution.
The Genesis and Emergence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA): An Example of Evolution in Action?
We have seen a changing profile from HA-MRSA to CA-MRSA. This is potentially dangerous because the new strains are more virulent and aggressive.
Documented Anomaly in Recent Versions of the BLASTN Algorithm and a Complete Reanalysis of Chimpanzee and Human Genome-Wide DNA Similarity Using Nucmer and LASTZ
Past evolutionary research in comparative DNA analysis between chimps and humans has employed a great deal of preferential and selective data analysis.
A Young-Earth Creation Human Mitochondrial DNA “Clock”: Whole Mitochondrial Genome Mutation Rate Confirms D-Loop Results
New data agree with the expectations from D-loop results, further confirming the origin of humans within 6000 years and rejecting evolutionary timescales.
This paper contends that Walton has given a magisterial authority to the ANE mythic texts in order to interpret the Genesis accounts.
This paper aims to determine the number of created kinds in this family of parasites, the original hosts, and what produced current species.
Over the last 80 years numerous determinations have been made of the 147Sm half-life.
The mechanism of speciation remains one of the most contested scientific questions among both evolutionists and creationists.
Belief that the Flood lasted 371 days is common among recent creationists, but there are other possibilities.
The molecular interaction of HIV-1 is merely cyclic fine-tuning of an existing function and illustrates the broken relationship between the virus and the host.
While many Christians support Ross’ broad conclusions, few would agree with the details of Dr. Ross’ argument.
There are at least three problems with Hugh Ross’ local flood model which render it physically impossible. This is in addition to numerous biblical issues.
An Initial Estimation of the Numbers and Identification of Extant Non-Snake/Non-Amphisbaenian Lizard Kinds: Order Squamata
This paper is meant to lay creation groundwork for lizard systematics with the goal of estimating the number of baramins brought on the Ark.
Dr. Danny Faulkner analyzes Dr. Walt Brown’s determination of the date of the Flood within his hydroplate model using the orbits of two comets.
Information Processing Differences Between Bacteria and Eukarya—Implications for the Myth of Eukaryogenesis
Based on differences in gene sets and molecular machines between bacteria and eukarya, we continue to demonstrate that unbridgeable evolutionary chasms exist.
Information Processing Differences Between Archaea and Eukarya—Implications for Homologs and the Myth of Eukaryogenesis
In the grand evolutionary paradigm, the origin of the eukaryotic cell represents one of the great mysteries and key hypothetical transitions of life.
Natural selection is controversial among many scientists, both in evolutionary and creationary circles.
Dr. Hartnett speculates about the idea that what we observe in the universe is not in equilibrium; that is, the state of the universe is in a transient state.
Dr. Gordon recently published a critique of the claims of young-earth creation. This reply is to the biblical criticisms in his paper.
The cosmogony proposed is consistent with all creationist understandings of the biblical texts and has no light-travel time problem.
In 2013 D. R. Faulkner proposed what he says is a new solution to the biblical creationist starlight travel-time problem.
I am delighted that my friend, John Hartnett, has responded with some objections to my proposal for a new solution to the light travel time problem.
In this three-part ~35,000-word response, Guliuzza (2014a, b, c) fails to clearly define his terms and/or use them consistently.
A Response to “Does Natural Selection Exist?”: Creatures’ Adaptation Explained by the Design-based, Organism-driven Approach: Part 3
This third installment is a continuation of my response to a recent critical paper (Jeanson 2013).
A Response to “Does Natural Selection Exist?”: Creatures’ Adaptation Explained by the Design-based, Organism-driven Approach: Part 2
This second installment is a continuation of my response to a recent critical paper (Jeanson 2013) on a series of Acts & Facts articles.
A Response to “Does Natural Selection Exist?”: Creatures’ Adaptation Explained by the Design-based, Organism-Driven Approach: Part 1
This paper responds to a 2013 Jeanson paper critical of a series of Acts & Facts articles published by the Institute for Creation Research (ICR).
Old Earth Theology: A Factor that Explains Inconsistent Belief of Inerrancy Among Florida Southern Baptists
A major shift in thinking seems to be occurring in contemporary evangelical thinking.
When added to previously determined kinds of extant anurans, caudates, and gymnophionans, a total of 248 amphibian kinds may have been brought on board the Ark.
Creationists have recently considered impact cratering in the solar system occurring during the fourth day of the Creation Week.
Circular Reasoning in the Dating of Deep Seafloor Sediments and Ice Cores: The Orbital Tuning Method
The different dating systems are calibrated to one another: dates assigned to the seafloor sediments are used to date the ice cores, and vice versa.
The evolutionary theory cannot explain certain aspects of solar system bodies. There have been few comprehensive proposals for a creationary model.
A Photon Reference Frame and Distant Starlight: Analyzing Ideas from Gerald L. Schroeder’s The Science of God
This paper reviews claims made by Gerald L. Schroeder in relation to the nature of light and the age of the universe.
Modern genomics provides the ability to screen the DNA of a wide variety of organisms to scrutinize broken metabolic pathways. This data has revealed wide-spread genetic entropy in human genomes.
The purpose of this paper is to use all available information in order to make an initial estimate of the identification and numbers of extant Lepidosaur kinds, except for the “lizards.”
In recent years there has been increasing discussion of craters within the creation paradigm.
Biosystematics is in great flux today because of the plethora of genetic research continually shedding light on organism relationships.
The young-earth creation model currently lacks a robust explanation for molecular diversity.
This paper will focus on identifying extant bird kinds.
Many recent creationists believe that the second law of thermodynamics came into being as a result of the Fall or the curse. I argue that this is not supported by Scripture nor science.
This paper contends that there is no real biblical evidence to suggest that the second law was inoperable prior to the curse.
The very teachings of Jesus are being attacked by those who state that, because of His human nature, there is error in some of His teaching regarding earthly things such as creation.
Some recent creationists have attempted to address the light travel time problem indirectly with an implied appeal to a small universe.
In secular culture it is common to view the biblical history of Adam as a story, myth, or a parable but this is now also becoming the standard interpretation for many within the evangelical community.
This paper overviews the recent work of Peter Enns, The Evolution of Adam.
Death, whether animal or human, physical or spiritual, is a consequence of man’s disobedience toward his Creator and an intrusion into His “very good” creation.
This paper will evaluate and critique six commentaries and the reasons they give for not taking the days of creation literally.
An Initial Estimate Toward Identifying and Numbering Amphibian Kinds within the Orders Caudata and Gymnophiona
An initial attempt to count and identify biblical kinds in amphibian orders Caudata and Gymnophiona were estimated using current information and several key assumptions and guidelines.
This article reveals how young-earth creationists have concluded the approximate age of Adam and to explain the reason for a 6,000 year range between both groups.
Any understanding of Scripture that excludes or indicts the divine Himself is necessarily flawed and false.
The evidence to be considered will indicate that a fear of God and afterlife play a major role in the psychology of unbelief, and that points toward the realism of Scripture.
Parallelism in Hebrew Poetry Demonstrates a Major Error in the Hermeneutic of Many Old-Earth Creationists
This article will provide a survey of the nature of Hebrew poetry and provide examples of the various forms of parallelism exhibited in the six poetic books of the Bible.
Christians are caught up in theistic evolutionism without realizing that the worldview of theistic evolutionism is incoherent and inconsistent with the teachings of Scripture.
Review of John Lennox’s Book Seven Days That Divide the World: The Beginning According to Genesis and Science
Lennox reasons that the church has been wrong in the past over its interpretation of Scripture in light of scientific discovery, and that those holding to a young earth are wrong again.
To depart from Scripture at any point is neither safe nor right. Thus Estabrook’s discussion of my paper (Joubert 2011) in which he expressed his difficulties with my defense of the soul is welcome.
Certainly there is more to humans than a complex brain architecture from which a mind would seem to emerge. However, this reader has two difficulties.
Understanding the Nature of Scripture, of Jesus, and the “Dis-Ease” of Theistic Evolutionists (BioLogos)
The apologetic suggests that BioLogos should consider that the ultimate source of their “dis-ease” is the nature and character of the Creator.
Theistic evolutionism is not only inconsistent with Scripture but also philosophically incoherent.
I reviewed both the textbooks used for life science classes at the college where I teach and those that I used in my past university course work.
Genome-Wide DNA Alignment Similarity (Identity) for 40,000 Chimpanzee DNA Sequences Queried against the Human Genome is 86–89%
To provide a global set of analyses, large-scale comparative DNA sequence alignments between the chimpanzee and human genomes were performed with the BLASTN algorithm.
A Christian view of the world entails that science is not a Christian’s ultimate or sole source of knowledge and the physical world is not the only world there is.
Although the term uniformitarianism was not introduced until 1832, the concepts that Lyell so cleverly fused together had already been operating in the nascent discipline of geology for some decades
This research effort provides information necessary for the best possible reconstruction of the animal kinds preserved on the Ark for the Ark Encounter.
This paper will show that Christian professor Daniel Brannan’s arguments are based on faulty premises regarding Adam’s constitutional nature, the nature of Adam’s perfection and Adam’s free choice.
Response to Comments on “How Genomes are Sequenced and Why it Matters: Implications for Studies in Comparative Genomics of Humans and Chimpanzees”
The author believes that his use of the Y-chromosome comparison example was misinterpreted and desires to clarify.
Assuming that “natural kind” is a merely biological rather than metaphysical would be a mistake, resulting in Christians having difficulty evaluating and correcting rival views to created kinds.
An Examination of Augustine’s Commentaries on Genesis One and Their Implications on a Modern Theological Controversy
Few individuals in church history are as popular as Augustine of Hippo. Old-earthers claim him as support for figurative interpretations of Genesis 1. But what did Augustine really say?
How Genomes are Sequenced and Why it Matters: Implications for Studies in Comparative Genomics of Humans and Chimpanzees
When evaluating comparisons between genomes using DNA sequence, it is important to understand the nature of how that sequence was obtained and bioinformatically manipulated before drawing conclusions.
Darwinists try to disprove the argument from design by providing examples of what they claim are poor design.
A hypercyclone was simulated over the Arabian Sea to test enhanced precipitation over the Middle East and explain evidence for greater vegetation in the past.
This biblical story is believed by many to be the record of a real historical event that took place after the worldwide Flood, at a time when the earth’s population still lived together in one place.
On both large and small cosmic scales there is a diverse range of trends, patterns, and phenomena that beckon some kind of explanation.
The sedimentary strata that cover most of Israel are an obvious record of the Genesis Flood.
Clear biblical teaching is that the universe is only a few thousand years old, so we should only be able to see objects within a radius of 6,000 light years.
The Geology of Israel Within the Biblical Creation-Flood Framework of History: 1. The Pre-Flood Rocks
Understanding the geology of Israel would provide background to biblical events, and potential insights as to where and how they happened.
This paper examines this assumption and ﬁnds the evidence shows that the levels of salinity in seawater and human blood are markedly different.
Numerical Simulation of Precipitation in Yosemite National Park with a Warm Ocean: Deep Upper Low and Rex Blocking Pattern Case Studies
Precipitation from two cold, winter orographic storms in Yosemite National Park and the Sierra Nevada was simulated with the NCAR mesoscale weather model called WRF.
Media coverage of global warming has been increasing for over twenty years. Oddly, the church has had little to say on the issue and has made scant use of Scripture to evaluate the alleged problem.
Baraminological Analysis Places Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, and Australopithecus sediba in the Human Holobaramin
This present study should end charges against creationists that classification of australopiths as human or ape is arbitrary and meaningless.
Although the play was widely believed to be an accurate synopsis of the historical trial, often called the Trial of the Century, it grossly distorted the actual events of history.
Of the nine terms associated with uniformitarianism, seven can be replaced or eliminated, which refutes the accusation that diluvialists do not understand uniformitarianism.
Young-earth creationists rightly consider that Neanderthals were human, but are divided on various issues.
In the past few decades there has been a growing controversy in society and in the Church over evolution and the age of the earth.
Mutations are normally classified according to their proximal effect on an organism’s fitness, whether beneficial, deleterious, or neutral.
The problem of evil is always a challenge for the Christian witness. However, William Dembski’s “solution” proves logically and biblically unsound.
A review of some recent well-documented cases of intolerance in the cosmology field illustrates a common problem in science. Many relate to the Big Bang theory.
The dominant view of the origin of oil amongst western oil companies until 1969 was that it was due to the decay of living matter. Now other views are making themselves heard.
Measurable radiocarbon has been detected in fossils from the earliest days of radiocarbon dating. When these data are put in perspective, their deadly significance to uniformitarianism is apparent.
The irony of the conflict over peer review is that peer review is poorly understood and criticized even in conventional journals.
Shortly after Darwin published On the Origin of Species, Pasteur began to challenge the idea of spontaneous generation.
An Apology and Unification Theory for the Reconciliation of Physical Matter and Metaphysical Cognizance
Because one is tangible and the other intangible, the physical and metaphysical are generally treated separately. But this dichotomy is illogical.
The world of germs and microbes has received much attention in recent years. But where do microbes fit into the creation account?
Young-Earth Creationism on Answers Research Journal
Young-earth creationism, alternately known as biblical creation, is a set of beliefs about earth history based on the assumption that the Bible provides an accurate historical record of earth’s origins and timescale. All secular scientists, as well as most Christian theologians, scientists, and laypeople, reject young-earth creationism as pseudoscientific—a religious belief of fundamentalist Christians refuted by science. Instead, these critics believe some or all the standard evolutionary story of the universe, earth, and life. Such old-earth Christians believe the scientific evidence overwhelmingly confirms at least the idea of millions of years of cosmic and earth history if not also the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution (including human evolution). Therefore, these Christians favor one of the many old-earth views of Genesis held by professing Christians: gap theory, day-age view, analogical day view, framework hypothesis, cosmic temple view, theistic evolution, etc.
The aim of the professional, peer-reviewed research papers in Answers Research Journal (ARJ) is to deeply consider the biblical and scientific evidence in support of the Bible’s teaching that
- God created the universe and all it contains (including stars, galaxies, earth, plants, animals, and people, etc.) in six literal (24-hour) days a little more than 6000 years ago;
- He supernaturally created different kinds of plants and animals, as well as mankind (Adam and Eve), to reproduce (with variety) according to (or within) each unique kind (i.e., one kind does not change into a different kind) by natural procreation;
- He cursed the whole creation when Adam and Eve fell in sin, which brought into the creation both moral evil (murder, crime, wars, etc.) and natural evil (human and animal death, disease, extinction, and earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, etc.);
- He destroyed the world with a global, yearlong, catastrophic Flood at the time of Noah, which transformed the surface of the earth; and
- He judged post-Flood people at the Tower of Babel by supernaturally creating new languages, which forced people apart to form nations and people groups.
These papers address these beliefs in light of biblical theology, biblical Hebrew and Greek scholarship, the inerrancy of Scripture, hermeneutics, and scientific evidence from anthropology, biology, genetics, geology, and astronomy. Biblically, they focus not only on the text of Genesis 1–11 but also on other Scriptures in the Old and New Testament that are relevant to the interpretation of Genesis.