Mammalian Ark Kinds—Appendices and References

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Information on the class Mammalia was evaluated in an attempt to get a realistic estimate of what mammalian kinds would have been represented on the Ark.

The following are the appendices and references for the paper, Mammalian Ark Kinds:

Appendix 1. Mammalian hybrids—Macropodidae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
LagostrophusfasciatusBanded Hair-wallaby
GenusSpeciesCommon Name
DendrolagusbennettianusBennett’s Tree-kangaroo
DendrolagusdorianusDoria’s Tree-kangaroo
DendrolagusgoodfellowiGoodfellow’s Tree-kangaroo
DendrolagusinustusGrizzled Tree-kangaroo
DendrolaguslumholtziLumholtz’s Tree-kangaroo
DendrolagusmatschieiHuon Tree-kangaroo
DendrolaguspulcherrimusGolden-mantled Tree-kangaroo
DendrolagusspadixLowlands Tree-kangaroo
DendrolagusstellarumSeri’s Tree-kangaroo
DendrolagusursinusUrsine Tree-kangaroo
DorcopsisatrataBlack Dorcopsis
DorcopsishageniWhite-striped Dorcopsis
DorcopsisluctuosaGray Dorcopsis
DorcopsismuelleriBrown Dorcopsis
DorcopsismacleayiMacleay’s Dorcopsis
DorcopsisvanheurniSmall Dorcopsis
LagorchestesasomatusLake Mackay Hare-wallaby
LagorchestesconspicillatusSpectacled Hare-wallaby
LagorchesteshirsutusRufous Hare-wallaby
LagorchestesleporidesEastern Hare-wallaby
Macropusagilis (3)Agile Wallaby
MacropusantilopinusAntilopine Kangaroo
MacropusbernardusWoodward’s Wallaroo
MacropusdorsalisBlack-striped Wallaby
MacropuseugeniiTammar Wallaby
Macropusfuliginosus (1, 2)Western Grey Kangaroo
Macropusgiganteus (1, 2)Eastern Grey Kangaroo
MacropusgreyiToolache Wallaby
MacropusirmaWestern Brush Wallaby
MacropusparmaParma Wallaby
Macropusparryi (1)Pretty-faced Wallaby
Macropusrobustus (2)Wallaroo
Macropusrufogriseus (4)Red-necked Wallaby
Macropusrufus (1, 2)Red Kangaroo
OnychogaleafraenataBrindled Nail-tail Wallaby
OnychogalealunataCrescent Nail-tail Wallaby
OnychogaleaunguiferaNorthern Nail-tail Wallaby
Petrogaleassimilis (5)Allied Rock-wallaby
PetrogalebrachyotisShort-eared Rock-wallaby
PetrogalecoenensisCape York Rock-wallaby
PetrogalegodmaniGodman’s Rock-wallaby
PetrogaleherbertiHerbert’s Rock-wallaby
Petrogaleinornata (5)Unadorned Rock-wallaby
PetrogalelateralisBlack-flanked Rock-wallaby
Petrogalemereeba (5)Mareeba Rock-wallaby
PetrogalepenicillataBrush-tailed Rock-wallaby
PetrogalepersephoneProserpine Rock-wallaby
PetrogalepurpureicollisPerple-necked Rock-wallaby
PetrogalerothschildiRothschild’s Rock-wallaby
Petrogalesharmani (5)Mt. Claro Rock-wallaby
PetrogalexanthopusYellow-footed Rock-wallaby
ThylogalebillardieriiTasmanian Pademelon
ThylogalebrowniBrown’s Pademelon
ThylogalebruniiDusky Pademelon
ThylogalecalabyiCalaby’s Pademelon
ThylogalelanatusMountain Pademelon
Thylogalestigmatica (4)Red-legged Pademelon
Thylogalethetis (4)Red-necked Pademelon
Wallabiabicolor (3)Swamp Wallaby

(1) The Eastern Grey Kangaroo has crossed with the Western Grey Kangaroo, the Pretty-faced Wallaby, and the Red Kangaroo (Gray 1972, pp. 167–168).

(2) The Red Kangaroo, in addition to hybridizing the the Eastern (#1) and Western Grey Kangaroos, has hybridized with the Walaroo (Gray 1972, p. 168).

(3) The Agile Wallaby has crossed with the Swamp Wallaby (VanGelder 1977, pp. 5–6). Mentioned in Gary (1972) with both under the genus name Wallabia (pp. 169–170).

(4) The Red-necked Pademelon has hybridized with the Red-legged Pademelon and the Red-necked Wallaby (Bennet’s Wallaby in Gray) (Gray 1972, p. 169).

(5) Crosses have been produced between the Allied Rock-wallaby and the Unadorned, Mareeba, and Mt. Claro Rock-wallabies (Close et al. 1996). Each of these species differ in karyotype.

Appendix 2. Mammalian hybrids—Elephantidae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
Elephusmaximus (1)Asian Elephant
Loxodontaafricana (1)African Bush Elephant
LoxodontacyclotisAfrican Forest Elephant

(1) An Asian elephant gave birth to a male calf, Motty, at Chester Zoo in England in 1978; the sire was an African elephant (

For many years the African Bush and Forest Elephants were considered different subspecies of L. africana.

Appendix 3. Mammalian hybrids—Cercopithecidae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
Allenopithecusnigroviridis (1)Allen’s Swamp Monkey
Cercocebus6 species (2, 3)Mangabeys
Cercopithecus25 species (1, 4, 5)various Monkeys and Guenons
Chlorocebus6 speciesvarious Monkeys and Vervet
Erythrocebuspatas (5)Patas Monkey
Lophocebus3 speciesvarious Mangabeys
Macaca21 species (2, 4)Macaque
Mandrillus2 species (3, 6)Mandrills
Miopithecus2 speciesTalapoin
Papio5 species (6, 7)Baboon
Theropithecusgelada (7)Gelada
GenusSpeciesCommon Name
Colobus5 speciesColobuses
NasalislarvatusProboscis Monkey
Piliocolobus9 speciesother Colobuses
Presbytis10 speciesSurilis and Langurs
ProcolobusverusOlive Colobus
Pygathrix3 speciesDouc Langurs
Rhinopithecus4 speciesSnub-nosed Monkeys
Semnopithecus7 speciesGray Langurs
Trachypithecus17 speciesLutungs, Leaf-monkeys, and other Langurs

(1) Allenopithecus nigroviridis has crossed with Cercopithecus aethiops producing viable offspring (Van Gelder 1977).

(2) Two species of Cercocebus have each crossed with two species of Macaca (Van Gelder 1977).

(3) There are two reported cases of Cercocebus crossing with Mandrillus, resulting in live birth (Van Gelder 1977).

(4) Several species of Cercopithecus have been crossed succesfully with several species of Macaca (Van Gelder 1977).

(5) A hybrid was produced between one species of Cercopithecus and Erythrocebus patas (Van Gelder 1977).

(6) Several species of Mandrillus have hybridized with various species from Papio (Van Gelder 1977).

(7) Theropithecus gelada has hybridized with Papio (Van Gelder 1977).

Appendix 4. Mammal hybrids—Sciuridae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
Ratufa4 speciesGiant Squirrels
SciurilluspusillusNeotropical Pygmy Squirrel
Microsciurus4 speciesDwarf Squirrels
RheithrosciurusmacrotisTufted Ground Squirrel or Groove-toothed Squirrel
Sciurus28 speciesTree Squirrels
SyntheosciurusbrochusBang’s Mountain Squirrel
Tamiasciurus3 species (2)Red Squirrels or Chickarees
AeretesmelanopterusNorthern Chinese Flying Squirrel or Groove-toothed Flying Squirrel
Aeromys2 speciesLarge Black Flying Squirrels
BelomyspearsoniiHairy-footed Flying Squirrel
BiswamoyopterusbiswasiNamdapha Flying Squirrel
EoglaucomysfimbriatusKashmir Flying Squirrel
EupetauruscinereusWoolly Flying Squirrel
Glaucomys2 speciesNew World Flying Squirrels
Hylopetes9 speciesArrow-tailed Flying Squirrels
Iomys2 speciesHorsfield’s Flying Squirrels
Petaurillus3 speciesPygmy Flying Squirrels
Petaurista8 speciesGiant Flying Squirrels
Petinomys9 speciesDwarf Flying Squirrels
Pteromys2 speciesOld World Flying Squirrels
PteromyscuspulverulentusSmoky Flying Squirrel
TrogopterusxanthipesComplex-toothed Flying Squirrels
Callosciurus15 speciesBeautiful Squirrels or Tricolored Squirrels
Dremomys6 speciesRed-cheeked Squirrels
Exilisciurus3 speciesPygmy Squirrels
Funambulus5 speciesAsiatic Striped Palm Squirrels
GlyphotessimusBornean Pygmy Squirrel or Sculptor Squirrel
Hyosciurus2 speciesSulawesi Long-nosed Squirrels
Lariscus4 speciesMalaysian Striped Ground Squirrels
MenetesberdmoreiBerdmore’s or Multistriped Palm Squirrel
NannosciurusmelanotisBlack-eared Squirrel
Prosciurillus5 speciesSulawesi Dwarf Squirrels
RhinosciuruslaticaudatusLong-nosed Squirrel or Shrew-faced Squirrel
RubrisciurusrubriventerSulawesi Giant Squirrel
Sundasciurus15 speciesSunda Tree Squirrels
Tamiops4 speciesAsiatic Striped Squirrel
AtlantoxerusgetulusBarbary Groud Squirrel
SpermophilopsisleptodactylusLong-clawed Ground Squirrel
Xerus4 speciesAfrican Ground Squirrels
EpixerusebiiAfrican Palm Squirrels
Funisciurus9 speciesAfrican Striped Squirrels or Rope Squirrels
Heliosciurus6 speciesSun Squirrels
MyosciuruspumilioAfrican Pygmy Squirrel
Paraxerus11 speciesAfrican Bush Squirrels
Protoxerus2 speciesOil Palm Squirrels
Ammospermophilus5 speciesAntelope Ground Squirrels
Cynomys5 speciesPrairie Dogs
Marmota14 species (3)Marmots
Sciurotamias2 speciesRock Squirrels
Spermophilus41 species (1)Ground Squirrels or Susliks
Tamias25 speciesChipmunks

(1) There is abundant evidence of interspecific hybridization among members of this genus in contact zones (Cothran and Honeycutt

1984; Ermakov et al. 2002; Goodwin 1998; Hafner 1992; Spiridonova et al. 2006; Tsvirka, Chelomina, and Korablev 2006). Gray (1972) has some listed under the (invalid) genus name Citellus.

(2) There is evidence of hybridization between Tamiasciurus douglasii and T. hudsonicus in a contact zone (Chavez, Saltzberg, and Kenagy 2011).

(3) There is evidence of hybridization between Marmota baibacina and M. sibirica in a contact zone (Brandler, Nikol’sky, and Kolesnikov 2010).

Appendix 5. Mammal hybrids—Geomyidae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
Cratogeomys8 speciesYellow-faced and Mexican Pocket Gophers
Geomys9 species (1)Eastern Pocket Gophers
Orthogeomys11 speciesTaltuzas
Pappogeomys2 speciesAlcorn’s and Buller’s Pocket Gophers
Thomomys8 species (2)Western Pocket Gophers
ZygogeomystrichopusMichoacan Pocket Gopher

(1) Hybrids have been reported in contact zones between several different species in Geomys (Harrison 1993).

(2) Hybrids have been reported in contact zones between Thomomys townsendii x T. umbrinus (Gray 1972, pp. 63–64).

Appendix 6. Mammal hybrids—Leporidae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
BrachylagusidahoensisPygmy Rabbit
BunolagusmonticularisRiverine Rabbit
CaprolagushispidusHispid Hare
Lepus32 species (1, 2)Common Hares and Jackrabbits
Nesolagus2 speciesStriped Rabbits
Oryctolaguscuniculus (2)European Rabbit
PentalagusfurnessiAmami Rabbit
PoelagusmajoritaBunyoro Rabbit
Pronolagus3 speciesRed Rock Hares
RomerolagusdiaziVolcano Rabbit
Sylvilagus17 speciesCottontails

(1) Hybrids have been reported between L. europaeus (European Hare) and L. timidus (Mountain Hare) (Gray 1972, pp. 90–91).

(2) Live hybrids are claimed between Lepus species and O. cuniculus (European rabbit), but not well documented. One well documented case of development past the blastocyst stage and implantation has been recorded (Chang, Marston and Hunt 1964; Gray 1972, pp. 91–92).

Appendix 7. Mammal hybrids—Felidae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
CatopumabadiaBay Cat
CatopumatemminckiiAsian Golden Cat
FelisbeitiChinese Mountain Cat
Feliscatus (3)Domestic Cat
Felischaus (3)Jungle Cat
FelismanulPalla’s Cat
FelismargaritaSand Cat
FelisnigripesBlackfooted Cat
Felissilvestris (3)Wildcat
Leopardus9 species (4)includes ocelot
LynxcanadensisCanadian Lynx
LynxlynxEurasian Lynx
LynxpardinusIberian Lynx
Lynxrufus (3)Bobcat
PardofelismarmorataMarbled Cat
Prionailurusbengalensis (3)Leopard Cat
PrionailurusiriomotensisIriomote Cat
PrionailurusplanicepsFlat-headded Cat
PrionailurusrubiginosusRusty-Spotted Cat
PrionailurusviverrinusFishng Cat
ProfelisaurataAfrican Golden Cat
Pumaconcolor (1, 4)Cougar
GenusSpeciesCommon Name
NeofelisnebulosaClouded Leopard
Pantheraleo (2)Lion
Pantherapardus (1, 2)Leopard
Pantheratigris (2)Tiger
UnciaunciaSnow Leopard

(1) Reciprocal crossed have occurred between the Cougar and the Leopard (Gray 1972, pp. 37–38).

(2) Lions have crossed with both leopards and tigers (Gray 1972, pp. 39–40).

(3) The domestic cat is reported to have crossed with the Jungle Cat, European Wild Cat, Bobcat, and Leopard Cat (Gray 1972, pp. 35–37.

(4) The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) has crosses with the Cougar (Puma concolor) (Dubost and Royère 1993).

Appendix 8. Mammal hybrids—Canidae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
AtelocynusmicrotisShort-eared Dog
CanisadustusSide-striped Jackal
Canisaureus (1)Golden Jackal
Canislatrans (1, 4)Coyote
Canislupus (1)Wolf
CanismesomelasBlack-backed Jackal
CanissimensisEthiopian Wolf
CerdocyonthousCrab-eating Fox
ChrysocyonbrachyurusManed Wolf
DusicyonaustralisFalkland Islands Wolf
LycalopexfulvipesDarwin’s Fox
LycalopexgriseusSouth American Gray Fox
LycalopexgymnocercusPampas Fox
LycalopexsechuraeSechuran Fox
LycalopexvetulusHoary Fox
LycaonpictusAfrican wild dog
NyctereutesprocyonoidesRaccoon dog
OtocyonmegalotisBat-eared Fox
SpeothosvenaticusBush Dog
UrocyoncinereoargenteusGray Fox
UrocyonlittoralisIsland Fox
VulpesbengalensisBengal Fox
VulpescanaBlanford’s Fox
VulpeschamaCape Fox
VulpescorsacCorsac Fox
VulpesferrilataTibetan Sand Fox
Vulpeslagopus (2)Arctic Fox
Vulpesmacrotis (3)Kit Fox
VulpespallidaPale Fox
VulpesrueppelliiRüppell’s Fox
Vulpesvelox (3)Swift Fox
Vulpesvulpes (2, 4)Red Fox
VulpeszerdaFennec Fox

(1) Well documented hybrids with domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) (Gray 1972, pp. 46–47).

(2) The Arctic Fox has hybridized with both the Red Fox, and the color variant called the Silver Fox (formerly Vulpes fulva) (Gray 1972, pp. 44–45).

(3) Hybridization inferred from intermediate skull morphology found in region where species overlap (Rohwer and Kilgore 1973).

(4) A zoo hybrid documented in International Zoo Yearbook 15, Duplaix-Hal (1975, p. 372). Further documentation in VanGelder (1977, p. 10).

Appendix 9. Mammal hybrids—Ursidae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
AiluropodamelanoleucaGiant Panda
Helarctosmalayanus (1)Sun Bear
Melurusursinus (1)Sloth Bear
Tremarctosornatus (3)Spectacled Bear
Ursusamericanus (2)American Black Bear
Ursusarctos (2)Brown Bear
Ursusmaritimus (2)Polar Bear
Ursusthibetanus (1, 2, 3)Asian Black Bear

(1) The Sun Bear has hybridized with both the Sloth Bear and the Asian Black Bear (Hennigan 2009).

(2) The Brown Bear has hybridized with the American Black Bear, Polar Bear, and Asian Black Bear (Hennigan 2009).

(3) The Asian Black Bear has hybridized with the Spectacled Bear (Hennigan 2009).

Appendix 10. Mammal hybrids—Equidae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
Equusasinus (1)Ass
Equusburchellii (1)Burchell’s Zebra
Equuscaballus (1)Horse
Equusgrevyi (1)Grévy’s Zebra
Equushemionus (1)Onager
Equuskiang (1)Kiang
Equusquagga (1?, 2)Quagga
Equuszebra (1, 2)Mountain Zebra

(1) Crosses have been reported between the Ass and all other equine species. The cross between the Ass and the Quagga (now extinct) has been questioned (Gray 1972, pp. 94–101).

(2) The Quagga has been involved other crosses that are not questionable accorording to Gray, including with the Mountain Zebra (Gray 1972, p. 112).

Appendix 11. Mammal hybrids—Tapiridae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
Tapirusbairdii (1)Baird’s Tapir
TapirusindicusMalayan Tapir
TapiruspinchaqueMountain Tapir
Tapirusterrestris (1)South American Tapir

(1) Crosses have occurred between the Baird’s and South American Tapirs at the San Francisco Zoo (Anonymous n.d.).

Appendix 12. Mammal hybrids—Rhinocerotidae.

GenusSpeciesCommon Name
Ceratotheriumsimum (1)White Rhinoceros
DicerorhinussumatrensisSumatran Rhinoceros
Dicerosbicornis (1)Black Rhinoceros
RhinocerossondaicusJavan Rhinoceros
RhinocerosunicornisIndian Rhinoceros

(1) A hybrid between a white and a black rhinoceros has been confirmed (Robinson et al 2005).


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